Recombinant Protein is a protein encoded by recombinant DNA that has been cloned in a system that supports expression of the gene and translation of messenger RNA. Modification of the gene by recombinant DNA technology can lead to expression of a mutant protein. Recombinant proteins are made from cloned DNA sequences which usually encode an enzyme or protein with known function.
Recombinant proteins are made through genetic engineering, also called gene splicing or recombinant DNA technology. By putting human, animal or plant genes into the genetic material of bacteria, mammalian or yeast cells, these microorganisms can be used as factories or producers to make proteins for medical, academic and research uses.
Recombinant proteins can be manufactured in different living cells and organisms, and historically, for pharmaceutical proteins, bacteria, yeasts, and animal cells have been the main industrial manufacturing hosts.
Many issues affect the expression of recombinant proteins. Because organisms differ in which codons are preferred for each amino acid, the level of corresponding tRNAs varies between organisms. If the gene for a recombinant protein uses codons that are rare in the host organism, the low amount of tRNA becomes rate limiting for expression. Adding the rare tRNA or changing the coding sequence for the gene of interest can resolve this issue. The gene for a recombinant protein can also be altered to make the protein more stable. Changing the N-terminal amino acid, removing the PEST sequences, or coexpressing a molecular chaperone all increase protein stability. If too much recombinant protein is produced too fast, it may aggregate into inclusion bodies. Using regulated expression vectors can control the rate at which recombinant protein is produced. Another factor is protein export. It is easier to isolate and purify recombinant proteins if they are exported outside the cell.
Many recombinant proteins require protein modifications, such as glycosylation, that are available only in eukaryotic cells; this sometimes leads to the use of yeast, insect cells, and mammalian cell culture systems.
Recombinant protein expands the market and, being expensive, they expand the pharma companies’ earnings even more. Recombinant proteins, known as highly potent medicines that are safe from off-target side effects, take a shorter time to develop than small molecules. As drugs with high earning potential, they send an important message for pharma companies to consider, and, it seems, they got the message. All Big Pharma now develop and sell recombinant proteins as drugs. The ability to develop new recombinant proteins in new indications has resulted in a significant development in major pharma companies. Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Roche, Novartis, and Merck, the very companies that were, until 2005, betting on their superior medicinal chemistry knowledge, now have, through multiple acquisitions, full-fledged recombinant protein arms.
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As a leading supplier of recombinant proteins, Advanced Biomart is proud to offer the highest quality recombinant proteins supported by extensive research, development, and validation. We are committed to the highest standards of product performance, and our scientists are dedicated to accelerating your discoveries.
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